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Research and development of magic drugs and robot deployment: in order to combat the epidemic, Americans use all high-tech means

most importantly, during the epidemic, American companies began the development and testing of drugs, treatments and vaccines. After more than a month, these technologies have also made great progress, which will play a very positive role in epidemic prevention and control

Article | duchen | Vicky Xiao

if you pay attention to the global COVID-19 in the past two days, you may already know that since China, Japan, South Korea and Italy, the United States is likely to become the next novel coronavirus epidemic country

according to CNN, up to now, 102 confirmed cases have occurred in the United States, of which 6 patients have died, and hundreds of people are in quarantine [1]. Many places have also declared a state of emergency, including travel restrictions, suspension of classes of affected schools and other measures

last Sunday, the CDC of the United States announced that it would liberalize the control of the "right to confirm", allowing laboratories at all levels to test patient samples by themselves, greatly improving the timeliness of diagnosis, and preparing for more community-based transmission events (cases without travel, contact history, and unknown source of infection)

most importantly, during the epidemic, American companies began the development and testing of drugs, treatments and vaccines. After more than a month, these technologies have also made great progress, which will play a very positive role in epidemic prevention and control

drugs: accelerate clinical testing

just when many people are still struggling with whether soymilk, tea, Shuanghuanglian... And other drugs are effective, on this side of the Pacific, redcivir, which once played a miraculous role in the cure of the first confirmed patient in Seattle, Washington at the end of January, has carried out clinical research and testing in the United States and will be carried out in many countries around the world

at that time, within a week after the Washington patient was admitted, in addition to the basic symptom management medication, the main treatment method was supportive treatment, that is, using a ventilator to help breathe, etc

on the seventh day, the patient continued to have a fever, the virus test results of samples in many parts were positive, and atypical pneumonia symptoms were observed on lung images

the treatment group composed of the Washington Providence regional medical center and external experts decided to sympathize with the patients on the seventh day of admission, and chose intravenous redcivir (which was still an experimental drug at that time) for treatment

then, on the eighth day after admission (the 12th day after developing symptoms), the patient's clinical symptoms were significantly improved, his appetite was improved, and there was even no need to use a ventilator. The oxygen saturation during spontaneous breathing increased to more than 94%

the treatment group wrote a paper on the treatment records of the patient and published it in the New England Journal of medicine. At this point, redceway was completely angry

redcivir was developed by Gilead Sciences, a well-known drug R & D enterprise. It is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug. It was initially used to target Ebola virus and fight the epidemic in West Africa. However, it was later found to have strong side effects in clinical tests that attracted the attention of relevant national departments, and then it was hidden

at the same time of the outbreak of COVID-19 in China, experts from the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill and other institutions found that [3], the joint use of redcivir and interferon IFNb can effectively inhibit the replication of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (mers) virus in animal models (novel coronavirus has been proved to be highly similar to coronaviruses such as SARS and mers)

subsequently, a Chinese team also registered a drug patent, pointing out that the combined use of redcivir and chloroquine phosphate can effectively kill novel coronavirus in vitro. However, later, chloroquine phosphate was pointed out by experts that it was very easy to overdose and had serious side effects. "Before treatment, there will be side effects first."

with the release of the results of a series of drug research and the disillusionment of the myth of other miraculous drugs, recivir was called "the only drug that may have the expected effect" by who. Because of the pronunciation of its English name remdesivir, redsiway is also affectionately called "the hope of the people" by many Chinese

last month, the expert team led by the China Japan Friendship Hospital has carried out two clinical studies on the therapeutic effect of redcivir in several hospitals including Wuhan Jinyintan. However, considering the rules of the double-blind test, the test results will not be released until April

in the United States, at present, there have been a total of two sympathizing medications of redcivir for patients with COVID-19 - the second time was also a Chinese who used equipment for a long time

on February 25, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) also took the lead in launching the double-blind clinical test of redcivir at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. The number of the first batch of patients participating in the test is unknown, but the final number of NIH test will be at least 100 (at present, the number of confirmed patients in the United States is only 88), that is, patients confirmed in the future will also participate in the test

at the same time, on February 26, Gilead science also announced that it would carry out the phase 3 clinical studies of the new redcivir for patients with covid-19 in Asia. The sites will be located in Asian countries except China, as well as other countries where the company's main products, purification and degassing devices and filter materials, have been successfully used in the military, aviation and aerospace fields with a high number of confirmed patients

specifically, the company will carry out two independent tests. The first one will involve about 400 severe patients, divided into two groups, who will receive intravenous injection of redcivir for 5 days and 10 days respectively

in the second test, about 600 patients with general symptoms participated. They were divided into three groups, which received intravenous injection of redcivir for 5 days and 10 days respectively, and as the control group, only received standard treatment

the company also said that it would continue to provide compassionate medication of redcivir to eligible patients

it is worth mentioning that Yang Taiying, the team leader of Gilead scientific research and development redciway, is a Chinese, who graduated from the Department of chemistry of Taiwan University and obtained a doctorate in organic chemistry from the University of Southern California. Yang joined geelide Science in 1993 and began to serve as executive vice president of drug development and manufacturing in 2015

vaccine: entering the human testing stage

many teams around the world are currently developing covid-19 vaccine. Due to the largest demand, the closest distance and the highest urgency, the Chinese team has the most diversified types of vaccine research and development, and the speed is also fast. Progress is also under way in the United States

on February 25, the messenger RNA vaccine (mrna-1273) developed by Moderna company, supported by the National Institute of allergy and infectious diseases (NIAID), officially launched the human testing program [4], and has become the only known vaccine in the world to enter this stage

please enter the picture description. Mrna-1273 is a novel lipid nanoparticles (LNP) encapsulated messenger RNA vaccine, which can encode the full-length, pre fused stable spinous process protein of covid-19. It took only 42 days for Moderna to produce the first batch of vaccine, and it has been sent to NIAID's laboratory in Maryland. The agency expects that the investigation will officially start on March 6, but will not officially end until June 1, 2021

you must be confused to see this date: after the test, the cauliflower will be cold

don't worry, because at present, many authoritative experts believe that the novel coronavirus will become a new endemic epidemic, that is, an epidemic with human beings for a long time - to some extent, it is a bit like influenza, and it is unlikely to be wiped out. Considering this and the fact that vaccines must be safe, a one-year and three-month testing period is still necessary

the main purpose of this human test is to check the safety, reactivity (the ability to produce excessive immunological reactions and related signs and symptoms) and immunogenicity (the ability to cause immune response) of mrna-1273 vaccine

participants will be 45 year old healthy men and non pregnant women. They will be divided into three groups, receiving the first injection of 25, 100 or 250 micrograms of upper arm muscle, and then receiving the same dose of the second injection a month later

The principle of

messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine is: wrap the mRNA prepared in vitro into drugs, send them to the body, and then be swallowed by cells; MRNA is recognized by ribosomes, and the corresponding antigen is synthesized according to the virus antigen information encoded by it; Antigen will then be sold on the market in accordance with the law of "one price, one goods", activate the immune system, produce antibodies, block the real virus from entering cells, and then block its replication channels, so that the virus can not only cause harm to the human body, but also can not further infect others through replication

a popular way of understanding is that DNA is a "hard disk", which stores a large number of instructions, mRNA is a series of temporary instructions, like "code", and protein is a "software" generated under the control of "code"


mrna vaccine is a relatively new vaccine preparation method. The manufacturing process is relatively simple and rapid. It has a relatively reliable application in the field of influenza and other epidemics. Moderna is a leader in mRNA biotechnology. It has previously developed mRNA based influenza vaccines and is also developing other mRNA drugs

the test will be conducted at Kaiser Permanente Washington Institute of health in Seattle. Those who want to participate in the vaccine test can register with KP. Contact information: Lisa A. Jackson ckson@

isolation means: protect medical staff

before, we reported in detail the whole process of seeking medical treatment for the first confirmed patient in the United States. After landing in Seattle, the patient (a Chinese man in his 30s) began to have fever on January 21, accompanied by upper respiratory tract catarrhal symptoms. He picked it up, dialed 911, fully described his situation, and took the initiative to report his travel history

this is the first time that health workers at all levels in the United States have faced this novel coronavirus. Disease control professionals came to the patient's home with a full set of equipment, including a set of isopod, put him in an isolation cabin, quarantined the whole process and sent him to a nearby hospital

not a picture, only for illustrative purposes

isopod is a small biochemical isolation cabin, small and light, which can be installed on a stretcher or placed in an ambulance. Many medical device companies in the United States have launched such products

the patient was sent to a 20 foot square isolation ward. This is an international standard negative pressure isolation ward, which means that only clean air outside can enter, and the air that may contain bacteria/viruses inside will not be discharged before anti-virus treatment, ensuring that the virus will not leak through aerosol and other transmission routes. There are two such wards in the hospital

because they are facing a new virus with unknown danger, in order to protect the safety of medical workers, they usually do not need to frequently enter and leave the isolation ward, but operate a medical robot equipped with cameras, microphones, stethoscopes and other instruments. The daily inspection and application of drugs are also completed by robots, which greatly reduces the risk of infection

in addition to robots, the hospital has also taken many other measures to isolate patients and medical workers. The isolation ward has only one entrance and exit, which is guarded by full-time security personnel authorized by the CDC. ANN

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