How can the most dangerous nuclear facilities remo

2022-08-12
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Nuclear facilities = dangerous? How can we remove this misunderstood stigma?

as a kind of avoidance facility, the public has considerable fear of it and has a strong avoidance complex. In the face of the continuous upsurge of domestic avoidance activities, in order to achieve sound, rapid and healthy development of the nuclear industry, employees need to understand the characteristics of avoidance facilities, conduct in-depth research on relevant avoidance activities, analyze the difficulties and causes of the location of avoidance facilities, and learn from foreign experience to assist the government and enterprises to deal with the challenges of avoidance of nuclear facilities

in the process of rapid economic and social development in China, some industrial or public service facilities are built to meet the needs of economic and social development and public life. Some of these facilities may cause damage to the surrounding natural environment, public health and economic property. Therefore, the surrounding public strongly resist them and lead to the problem of avoidance. These facilities that cause avoidance problems are called avoidance facilities. As a kind of avoidance facility, the public has considerable fear of nuclear facilities, resulting in a strong avoidance complex

in 2016, the Lianyungang nuclear cycle project ran aground due to public avoidance activities, and new nuclear facilities in some regions of China have repeatedly encountered avoidance activities of different scales. Therefore, in the face of the continuous rise of avoidance activities in the country, which can test the needle puncture force on one station, in order to achieve sound, fast and healthy development of the nuclear industry, employees need to understand the characteristics of avoidance facilities and conduct in-depth research on relevant avoidance activities, This paper analyzes the dilemma and causes of the location of adjacent facilities, and uses foreign experience for reference to assist the government and enterprises to deal with the challenge of the adjacent problem of nuclear facilities

avoidance problem is affected by many factors

foreign scholars' research on avoidance problem began in the late 1970s. Ehrer first proposed the concept of "NIMBY" (notinmybackyard, not in my backyard) in 1977. The connotation of avoidance can be summarized as the collective action taken by the public around the proposed avoidance facilities to safeguard their own interests or certain values (such as anti nuclear activists) to prevent the construction of avoidance facilities in their own communities. These actions include various means and methods within or outside the system, such as political petitions, lawsuits, hearings, demonstrations, strikes, etc. In the early stage, the location of adjacent facilities was a purely technical problem, which was mainly scientifically demonstrated by technical experts. However, with the upsurge of democratization, the demands of public participation in public decision-making increased, and the channels increased. Therefore, some countries continued to improve the location mode and made more successful practical exploration

scholars in western countries have conducted extensive research on location selection strategies, policy tools, factors affecting the strength of avoidance activities, and have carried out practice for more than 20 years, and have obtained a series of experience worthy of reference

location strategy: Western countries adopted a location strategy called "decide announce defend (DAD) model in the early stage, which is mainly characterized by the secret closed location strategy of expert decision-making in order to avoid public opposition. However, with more and more failure cases of location of various adjacent facilities (including the Yucca Mountain project in the United States and the high-level radioactive storage project in the United Kingdom in the nuclear industry), countries began to reflect and put forward two new location strategies: "market or transactional location" and "engage delibrate deceit" (EDD). The way of "market or transaction location" is to promote the acceptance of neighborhood facilities by the community through market mechanism and economic incentives and compensation; The "voluntary/participation/partnership" approach is characterized by voluntary siting based on full public dialogue and debate

policy tools: the so-called policy tools mainly refer to a series of methods used by government and enterprise decision makers to ensure the successful construction of adjacent facilities. At present, the policy tools adopted by western countries for the location of adjacent facilities mainly include impact mitigation policy and economic compensation

influencing factors: foreign studies have shown that the strength of the neighbor avoidance problem is related to nine factors:

compensation mode

risk perception of relevant parties on facilities

location decision strategy

the credibility of the facility operator

the "fairness" caused by the imbalance of cost and income

demand degree of the facility itself

personal social pressure

citizenship

personal socio-economic factors

among these factors, "personal socio-economic factors", "civic heart" and "personal social pressure" belong to the objective existence that cannot be affected by facility decision makers (government/enterprises). "Compensation method" and "fairness" belong to the scope of the role of policy tools, while "risk perception of facilities", "location decision strategy", "risk perception of interested parties on facilities due to USB type-C connector 10 points", "demand degree of facilities themselves" are the four main factors related to enterprise or government activities that affect the strength of avoidance activities

the social necessity of relying too much on the dad location strategy for some projects also needs to be discussed. Through the case studies of Jiangmen nuclear fuel industrial park, Pengze nuclear power, Lianyungang nuclear cycle and other cases, combined with the case analysis of other domestic industries (such as Xiamen, Ningbo, Dalian PX project), and compared with foreign experience, it can be found that China's neighbor problem has the following obvious characteristics:

first, Dad mode is basically adopted in the location of adjacent facilities in China. Constrained by the traditional project investment system, there is no precedent for the market transaction type location methods such as trans Dutch auction and the "voluntary/participation/partnership" (EDD) method in China

second, under the pressure of pursuing GDP, local governments have played a dual role of athletes (attracting investment) and referees (reviewing the project) in the process of project site selection, and the public questioned the independence and impartiality of the government

third, enterprises attach importance to the maintenance of relations with local governments and industry authorities. They are weak in the maintenance of public relations and are in a passive position in the face of public avoidance activities

combined with the research framework of western scholars, from the four factors of "risk perception of facilities", "location decision-making strategy", "risk perception of related parties to facilities" and "demand degree of facilities themselves" related to enterprise or government activities, the location of domestic adjacent facilities has the following characteristics:

first, from the factor of "trust", the credibility of local governments and some industry competent departments in China is declining at present, The public's distrust of the government has seriously affected the effect of public communication of adjacent facilities. The environmental protection department does not have a strong voice in front of the development department, forming the public's impression of taking the form of EIA. At the same time, both central and local enterprises have formed the image of beneficiaries in the public. Enterprise safety accidents continue, and various scandals fill the media. The poor corporate image has led to poor communication results for some of the public

second, from the perspective of "location decision-making process", China is too dependent on dad location strategy. According to foreign research results, only the model represented by Singapore (centralization combined with efficient and strict supervision) is suitable for this strategy. From the technical point of view of the procedure itself, there are violations in some site selection activities, and the documents submitted for approval contain false content; Some site selection activities did not consider the impact across administrative regions; The unfairness in the implementation of the site selection procedure has become the reason for the backyard supporters to oppose the project

third, from the perspective of "risk perception of facilities", the public's acceptance and support for nuclear power development has always been significantly low, especially after the Fukushima accident, nuclear power safety has become a hot spot, and the public's acceptance of nuclear power has declined sharply. In addition, public communication needs to be sustained for a long time to take effect, and short-term public communication may be counterproductive

fourth, from the perspective of the "demand degree of the facilities themselves", some projects in China have scientific problems in site selection decisions. Taking the cases of Xiamen petrochemical and Pengzhou petrochemical as examples, according to the assessment of the environmental protection department, these plant sites are improperly selected and do not meet the environmental protection standards. From the perspective of the social necessity of the construction of facilities, it is expected that some projects come from the requirements of local GDP growth, and whether they meet the real social needs and livelihood needs of the local people has not been studied in depth, causing public opposition

▲ recently, Guangxi Fangchenggang Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. disclosed that the two units in operation of Fangchenggang nuclear power phase I project maintained stable operation, and a number of safety and performance indicators reached the world's excellent level, achieving 11.78 billion kwh of electricity in 2017

in addition to common problems, nuclear facilities are facing difficulties that other industries do not have.

engineering measures: the core of engineering measures is to ensure the implementation of strict safety standards. Although the safety standards of some industries represented by the nuclear industry in China are established in accordance with international standards and have a high safety margin, many enterprises in China, including large enterprises, have poor design and construction quality of some projects. At the same time, large safety production accidents have occurred repeatedly in production and operation. After extensive reports by various media, the public is skeptical about the reliability of enterprises' strict implementation of safety standards. In addition, some accidents caused by external disasters, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident, also make the public doubt whether the safety standards of relevant industries are sufficient

institutional mitigation: under the current system, China relies more on dad location strategy. In order to deal with the disadvantages of this model, local governments have adopted some public communication methods such as issuing brochures, hearings and so on, but the effect is not obvious. Relevant statutory public participation activities instead trigger and intensify avoidance activities (such as Jiangmen Longwan project). The main reason is that the difficulty of public communication for dangerous adjacent facilities is underestimated, the advance is not enough, and the scope of communication is too limited to a small range of residents

economic compensation: China's current economic compensation mainly focuses on land related land acquisition compensation, and a systematic evaluation system has not been formed for the compensation of potential risks caused by the negative externalities of facilities. Many projects prefer ex post compensation, such as nuclear insurance, and less systematic analysis and consideration of other types of compensation means. For example, the real estate value loss caused by proximity to high-risk adjacent facilities, personnel psychological impact and other factors

special dilemma: in addition to the common factors discussed above, China's nuclear facilities also face some difficulties that are not found in other industries. First of all, the public has long had widespread misunderstandings about nuclear technology, and public opinion has formed a tendency to stigmatize nuclear facilities. The erroneous reports of some media have made the public confuse nuclear weapons with civilian nuclear facilities and exaggerate the consequences of nuclear accidents

secondly, due to the long approval cycle from site selection to the final completion of nuclear facilities, some plant sites have not been strongly protected by administrative agencies or enterprises, resulting in subsequent neighbor avoidance problems

moreover, the construction of nuclear facilities may face the impact of cross administrative regions. Under the current site selection and construction mode, the project owner generally only has close communication with the provincial and municipal governments where the project is located, and has less direct communication with the provincial and municipal governments in the affected areas

there is an urgent need to improve the ways and means of public communication

in view of the current situation of the avoidance problem in China, it is suggested that China gradually adopt the following strategies in the process of nuclear facility location

first, speed up the selection of trading type in the market

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